Technology is connecting us in ways not seen before. Over a third of the world’s population use social media platforms such as Facebook and there are currently more mobile devices than people on the planet. The avalanche of data being created not only brings with it analytical challenges to find value but also concerns relating to privacy, who owns the data we generate and a perceived over-reliance on automatic decision making.
The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) due to come into effect in May 2018 is an attempt to address some of the concerns and brings considerable change for European-based organisations in terms of capturing, processing and using personal data. Some of the changes might be viewed as draconian and could have a major impact on the use of data in the insurance industry.
Personal data is defined as “any data that directly or indirectly identifies or makes identifiable a data subject, such as names, identification numbers, location data and online identifiers.”
Designed to improve protection for consumers, the new legislation focuses on how personal data is collected, processed and how long it is held for and includes more obligations for transparency and portability. Under the new rules, breaches must be reported within 72 hours and organisations face tougher penalties for non-compliance which could be up to 2% of global turnover or up to Euro 20m.
Consent to process the data
Insurance by its very nature involves collecting large amounts of personal data on customers. Under the new regulations, organisations will need to show how and when consent was obtained for processing the data.
Consent must be explicitly obtained rather than assumed and it needs to be obtained every time it is used for a specific purpose. This means that data collected in one area of the business cannot be used in another area unless explicitly agreed upfront by the customer.
This could be a problem for insurance companies as often data collected at underwriting and claims stages is then used for a variety of different purposes including fraud prevention, marketing, claims management and risk profiling. Also, some of the individual data collected via credit agencies or aggregators and then reused for another purpose such as the real-time rating and pricing of insurance could potentially fall into this category.
Time limits and erasure
To ensure that data is not held on to for any longer than necessary, use of personal data should be limited to the specific purpose for which the processing was intended. This change is likely to impact the insurance industry which up to now has sought to hold on to personal data for as long as possible to maximise potential use. For example, data in relation to historical claims experience.
Customers will have the right to demand that insurers delete their personal data where it is no longer required for its original purpose, or where they have withdrawn their consent.
Right to data portability
Individuals will be able to request copies of their personal data to make transferring to another provider easier. The regulations specify that the data needs to be in a commonly-used format. This might be problematic for insurers and intermediaries where data may be held on separate systems or in different formats.
The GDPR provides safeguards for individuals against decisions based solely on automated processing which includes ‘profiling’. Profiling is defined as “any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests, reliability or behaviour, location or movements.”
This new right is significant to the insurance industry as the underwriting process relies heavily on the pooling of information, building generalised models of risk to estimate future claims propensity and the profiling of individuals. There are also other areas where decisions are made based on processes that are automated including claims analysis, fraud prevention and marketing.
The right does not apply to profiling using personal data if any resulting decision is deemed as necessary for entering into or performance of a contract between you and the individual. The GDPR states that the contract needs to be between the data controller and the data subject. It is not clear about what happens when it concerns the processing of a third party’s personal data. Many insurance policies involve the processing of a third party’s personal data, in the form of a beneficiary under an insurance policy, for example, a second driver under a motor policy.
The other exemption is if the data has been anonymised – as this is no longer classed as personal data because the person cannot be identified from the data itself.
As far as profiling activities for underwriting – this is likely to be permissible as it can be considered necessary for the performance of a contract. However, profiling for marketing purposes will not be exempt.
How does the Regulation affect the use of big data?
The process of combining large amounts of data from disparate sources and analysing it by automatic or semi-automatic means to spot trends and find hidden patterns and anomalies has a number of benefits for the insurance industry. These include a greater understanding of risk across a book of business, more accurate pricing and improved competitiveness. Data providers such as Business Insight are all undoubtedly giving GDPR some thought and building in technology to ensure their data products will be compliant, or at least they should be.
At Business Insight, we invest a significant amount in research and development every year as well as looking to continually future proof our products. We use a range of different postgraduate analytical, statistical and mathematical techniques in researching and building models from large data sets which help guard against inaccuracies and errors.
We build models from data that has already been anonymised using various anonymisation techniques such as Bayesian Inference Swapping. We have also been developing methodologies and IP to improve the accuracy and robustness of our perils risk models as well as ensuring compliance with the forthcoming GDPR legislation. Our next generation of perils models and solution will be unveiled in the Summer.
In summary, the GDPR brings with it quite a few changes and challenges to the way data is collected, processed and stored. Insurance organisations should be taking the time now to review their data management practices and systems to ensure compliance. New technologies emerging will only serve to increase the pace of data generation and collection. A lot of thought will need to be given by companies to ensure they remain compliant in terms of what they currently do and new solutions they are thinking of implementing.
In terms of the application of GDPR to big data, there are going to be obstacles to overcome as the legislation will force more of a balance between the potential benefits of analytics and protecting an individual’s right to privacy. This could have a big impact in some areas and limit some of the analysis currently undertaken. Whether Brexit eventually results in some of the legislation being softened remains to be seen, though with GDPR taking effect in May next year you will need to start thinking about the implications sooner rather than later.